page in greek ελληνικά
the verb in latin 
notes, conjugation

katerina sarri notes, 2008.04.04. Partial translation from source: {tzartzanos.L.G.}
For english terms, see tutorials at <> retr:2008.04.04.
For full conjugation tables see <> retr:2008.04.04. by Louis Ha.
lat: vocales longae (= eng: vowels long) ā ē ī ō ū y̅
lat: vocales breves (= eng: vowels short) ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ y̆
Latin diphthongs are always long (e.g. ae is always ǣ).
The verb (lat: verbum): One of the parts of speech (lat: partes orationis), specifically, one of the 5 parts with declension (lat: declinabilia).
The properties (subsequents, gre: 'parepomena') of the verb: aspects (gre: διαθέσεις) 4, voices 2, conjugations 4, moods 3, tenses 4, numbers 2, persons 3. Onomatic forms 5 (in ancient greek only 2.)
A lot of types are made up with many words (periphrastically gre: περιφραστικά) with the verb sŭm = I am, used as an auxiliary verb (lat: verbum auxiliāre).
genĕra verbi (Aspects gre: Διαθέσεις) 4.
genus actīvum (active). laudo I praise.
genus medĭum (middle). lāvor = lavo me I wash, I wash myself.
genus passīvum (passive). laudor I am praised (by somebody else).
genus neutrum (neutral). dormio I sleep.
formae verbi (Voices) 2.
forma actīva (active). Group of verbal types ending with ‑o.
delĕ‑o (I destroy) dele‑s, dele‑t etc. etc.
forma passīva (passive) or middle voice. Group of verbal types ending with ‑or.
delĕ‑or (I am destroyed), delē‑ris, delē‑tur, dele‑t etc. etc.
coniugatiōnes (Conjugations) 4.
coniugatio prima (first). key ending, character ‑a, infintive.present: ‑āre.
amo (>amao), amāre to love.
coniugatio secunda (second). key ending, character ‑e, infintive.present: ‑ēre.
dele‑o, delēre to destroy.
coniugatio tertia (third). key ending, character consonant or ‑u, infintive.present: ‑ĕre.
leg‑o, legĕre to read. tribu‑o, tribuĕre to bestow.
coniugatio quarta (fourth). key ending, character ‑ι, infintive.present: ‑īre.
audĭ‑o, audīre to hear, to listen.
modi (Moods) 3.
modus indicatīvus (indicative, as in: I am happy)
modus coniuctīvus or subjunctīvus modus. (subjunctive as in: I wish I were happy). It corresponds to the greek optative enclisis (gre: ευκτική έγκλιση), hence it may be seen as amodus optatīvus.
modus imperatīvus (imperative). There is an imperative for present and an imperative for the future tenses.
tempŏra Tenses 6.
praesens, tempus praesens (present).
imperfēctum (imperfect).
futūrum (future).
perfēctum (perfect): Two kinds:
'perfectum praesens' or 'logĭcum' is the main perfect.
'perfectum historĭcum' is the historical perfect of aorist (gre: αόριστος).
plusquamperfectum (plusperfect).
futūrum exāctum (future perfect).
numĕri (Numbers) 2.
singulāris (singular).
plurālis (plural).
persōnae (Persons) 3.
persona prima (first person).
persona secūnda (second person).
persona tertĭa (third person).
Onomatic types 5.
infinitīvus (infinitive). Initially it used to be an abstrace noun, neutral.
errāre humānum est = gre: τὸ πλανᾶσθαι ὰνθρώπινόν ἐστι = to be wrong is a human (thing)
participĭum (participle). In lat, there is participle for active present amāns, amantis = the one that loves, acitve future amatŭrus‑ŭra‑ŭrum = the one that has loved and passive perfect amātus amāta amātum = the one that is loved or that has been loved.
supīnum (supine). Verbal noun of 4th declinatio, only with accusative ‑um and ablative ‑u.
1) in accusative ‑um: it is used with verbs that show movement, to indicate aim.
venērunt auxilium postulātum = they came, help asking. (postulo = I ask for something).
2) in ablative ‑u: it is used with some adjectives (facilis, difficilis, iucundus, mirabilis, et al.) to indicate reference.Also, at the expression 'fas est' or 'nefas est' (blessed/good or not blessed/not good).
hoc nefas est dictu = this is not good saying.
iucundus audītu = likeble to listening (nice for someone to listen to him)
gerundium. Verbal noun of 2nd declinatio, only with its 4 plagal cases ‑ndi, ‑ndo, ‑ndum, ‑ndo. It coincides with the ancient greek infinitive+article.
scribĕre = the writing. Gen: scribendi = of the writing. Dat: scribendo = to the writing. Acc: (ad) scribendum = (to, for) the writing. Ablat: srcibendo = from the writing.
dicendi perītus = he is experienced of the speaking (speech).
arma pugnando utilia = the arms to the battling useful (are).
arma ad pugnandum utilia = the arms to the battling useful (are).
hominis mens discendo alĭtur = of the human, the mind to (with) the learning is nurtured.
gerundīvum (gerundive). Verbal adjective of a passive aspect, in ‑ndus, ‑nda, ‑ndum. It corresponds to the greek verbal adjectives ‑τέος, ‑τέα, ‑τέον which indicate that something must be done. Also, the gerundive may indicate that something can be done, or is worth doing.
delenda est Carthāgo = must be destructed, destructable is Carthago.
facĭnus laudandum = work that (must be praised, praisable).