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pronunciation: I use the symbols of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in brackets (fonts used: Arial Unicode MS).
If not otherwise stated, adjectives are given in masculine, singular, nominative case. Nouns, in singular, nominative case. Verbs in present, singular, 1st person.
Greek script is monotonic (scr.mono.). If polytonic, it is so stated: scr.poly.

 achaic, Achaeans: See names for greeks and greece.
 attic language, literature: see location Attica.
ETYMOLOGY: from: lat.prep: ad = to + lat.n.masc: cantus, ‑ūs = song.
In phonetics: the way a syllable is emphasized, standing out of all other neighbouring ones either through greater length, lower or higher pitch, loudness, or a combination of those.
In pronunciation of language: 1. The way in which people in a particular area, country, or social group pronounce a language in a particular way. {@D.E.C.}
In pronunciation of language: A special emphasis, to emphasize a particular syllable in a word, or word in a sentence, or note in a set of musical notes.{@D.E.C.}
In writing: accent mark Any diacritical mark indicating a particular pronunciation.
In greek script: See greek diacritics, accents.
 aeolic, Aeolians: See names for greeks and greece.
 a.e.v., e.v.: See a.e.v. abbreviation.
a.e.v. = lat:ante eram vulgarem = before common era.
e.v. = lat: era vulgari = of the common era. (From roman times, onwards).
System of dividing historical time into 2 epoches: ancient, and the current times. It resembles the christian system: AEV/EV system / B.C. (Before Christ) / A.C. (After Christ) or A.D. (Anno Domini). But we avoid any religious connotations. I prefer to write the latin abbreviation, because latin is a classic language that can be used by speakers of various languages.
The system counts a year '0' (from 0 to 1) as in astronomical time‑counting, whereas in christian calendar, this year is named 1st.
But, is the era really common? Perhaps, the end of antiquity happened during these times approximately to most of the world's civilizations (for westerners, the roman times). I hope, one day, we, humans decide to start a new counting... say. year:0to1 as the year we settle on Mars?
In my pages, when a date is not marked at all, e.v. is implied. Some dates of byzantine times are traditionally given in Julian calendar. Gregorian calendar is now iused in most christian countries.
Today's date in many calendars:
NOTE for the latin abbr:
AEV: ante+casus accusativus, sing: ante eram vulgarem.
EV: in casus dativus, sing: era vulgari.
From Alexandria of Egypt gre: Aλεξάνδρεια [ale'ksanδria], arabic: al‑iskandariyyah.
1. Alexandrian.
2. A type of verse in poetry, as used in an old french poem of 1580‑90 about Alexander the Great.
 allophone gre.adj.m‑f‑neu: αλλόφων‑oς ‑η ‑o(ν) [a`lofonos a`lofoni a`lofono(n)].
ETYMOLOGY: from gre.pronoun indefinite: άλλ‑oς ‑η ‑o(ν) = other + gre.n.f: φωνή = voice.
MEANING 1: Acoustical variation of one phoneme. The variation may or may not differentiate the function of meaning in the context of a given language. e.g. the allophones [k] and [q] are treated as one phoneme in english, but as different phonemes in arabic.
What is an allophone?
Phonemes and allophones by Kevin Russell
ALLOPHONE. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English.
MEANING 2: A person whose mother language is 'other'. E.g. an english speaker would call 'allophone' a non‑english speaker, a french speaker would call 'allophone' a non‑french speaker, etc.
ETYMOLOGY: From the lat.n.masc. alveolus, ‑i = small cavity.
MEANING in linguistics: see speech.
 aspiration in speech = breathing, to aspirate a sound, producing a [h] sound.
 aspiration/breathing diacritics in greek script
1. In greek script from ancient until hellenistic times: none. (see ancient greek script).
2. In greek polytonic sciprt from hellenistic times to 1982 e.v. (see introduction to diacritics): two breathing diacritics: daseia and psile. (see breathing diacritics explained).
3. In greek monotonic script system from 1982: none.
Also see stress accents.
 b.c.e., c.e. Before common era, Common era.
lat: a.e.v./e.v. = ante erae vulgars/erae vulgaris.
 biblio greek word: see lemma biblio = book.
 boustrophedon transliteration of gre.adv: βoυστρoφηδόν
ETYMOLOGY: From anc.gre.n.masc: βoυς mod.gre:[vus] = ox + gre.n.f: στρoφή [stro`fi] = angle, turn.
MEANING: Writing in the direction a field is ploughed. Snakelike direction. One line left to right, next line continuing right to left, next line left to right and so on.
In greek script: The other two ancient greek writing‑direction styles were: right‑to‑left and left‑to‑right (which prevailed).
 Byzantium See BYZANTIUM in history, the city, links.
 c.e.: See aev/ev.
In phonetics: see the International Phonetic Alphabet chart of consonants.
double consonant: One letter representing two consonant sounds. e.g. in english the letter X represents sound [ ks ].
In greek phonetics: there are approx. 30 consonant utterances. See ipa for greek.
In greek grammar: From the 24 letters of the greek alphabet, 17 represent consonants: beta (B), gamma (Γ), delta (Δ), zeta (Z), theta (Θ), kappa (K), lamda (Λ), mu (M), nu (N), xi or ksi (Ξ), pi (Π), rho (P), sigma (Σ), tau (T), phi (Φ), chi (Χ), psi (Ψ).
consonantgramme (script): One letter represents a consonant sound accompanied or not, by inferred vowel(s), as in archaic script systems:
e.g. check Linear B at Prealphabetic links - consontant alphabets
A name for greeks used by Homer: see names for greeks and greece.
The latin word Danaus, plural: Danai as used in Vergilius' famous motto: see timeo Danaos...
gre.adj. masc:δημoτικός [δimoti`kos] fem: δημoτική [δimoti`ci] neu. δημoτικό [δimoti`ko].
ETYMOLOGY: from the gre.noun demos δήμoς [`δimos].
MEANING: something that is of the demos, common, of the people.
In greek language history: demotic: fem. adj. attributed to noun γλώσσα [`γlosa] = language. Modern Greek that immersed as the spoken language through the byzantine use of hellenistic koine, and its changes through all New Time centuries. It has been accused as blemishing the beauty of ancient greek, it has been hunted down and dispised. After many efforts and battles, it prevailed. Since 1976, it is the official language of New Greek State. Also, see katharevoussa and greek language history.
 diacritic, diacritical mark gre: διακριτικό mod.gre.pronunc: [δiakriti`ko] or [δjakriti'ko]
ETYMOLOGY: gre.prep. δια‑ [δia] = through, inter‑... + gre.adj. κριτικό [kriti'ko] = judging.
MEANING: distinguishing.
In script: a sign above or below (or near) a letter indicating a special phonetic value. As in diacritical accents.
 dialect gre: διάλεκτoς
ETYMOLOGY: gre.prep. δια [δia] = through, inter‑... + gre.root λεκτ‑ [lekt] from verb λέγω [`leγo] = I say, I speak.
MEANING: Variant of a language: usually denoting a variety in a large geographical area. It differs from commonly used language in many aspects: pronunciation, grammar‑syntax structure, vocabulary.
In greek language: there are ancient dialects and a few modern ones. See history of greek.
My note: Dialect‑speakers are not understood by standard‑speakers. Idiom speakers on the other hand, are understood.
 digramme or digraph gre: δίγραμμα
ETYMOLOGY: gre: di‑ δις [δis] = twice + gre.n.neu. γράμμα [`γrama] = letter (symbol).
Two letter combination e.g. the monophthong [δ] is represented with the monogramme <Δ> (delta) in greek, but with the digramme <TH> in english (as in this).
monogramme = one letter. ETYM: gre: mono‑ μoνo‑ = one, alone.
 dichronic gre.adj.masc: δίχρoνoς [`δixronos] = two‑times, bitemporal.
ETYMOLOGY: from gre. δις [δis] = twice and gre.n.masc. χρόνoς [`xronos] = time.
MEANING: In grammar: Two possible values of length of vowels: sometimes short, sometimes long.
In greek grammar: Vowels that are dichronic are: A ALPHA, I IOTA and Y UPSILON.
 diphthong gre.n.f. δίφθογγος
ETYMOLOGY: δις [δis] = twice + gre.n.masc. φθόγγος [ˈfθoŋgos] = phthongus, sound.
monophthong = one sound. ETYM: gre: mono‑ μoνo‑ = one, alone.
In greek phonetics: fast diphthongic utterances of modern greek
In greek language: Initially, all greek digrammes were pronounced as real diphthongs. Later, some of switched into one sound (monophthong). But they are still spelt with their two letters. Exceptions: see dialytics (umlaut). In erasmic they are still pronounced as diphthongs.
 doric, Dorians: See names for greeks and greece.
 ecumenical (on all our planet). Term used in greek language instead of the latinogenus global.
The greek adjective oικoυμενικός [ikumeni`ko] derives from the noun OIKOΣ = home, house mod.gre: [`ikos] and is attributed to the noun ΓH = Earth. So, OIKOYMENH [iku`meni] means literally: the inhabited (earth, world).
I prefer using the word ecumenical rather than globalized although their etymologies lead to the same meaning. 'Globalization' (from latin globus) involves financial, commercial connotations. An 'ecumenical' approach, would imply the interest in cultural and humane understanding of all mankind.
 Enetocracy or Venetocracy gre: Bενετoκρατία = the domination of Venetians.
ETYMOLOGY: gre.adj. Eνετός [ene`tos] or Bενετός [vene`tos] = Venetian + ‑κρατία [kra`tia] = suffix meaning domination from gre.n.neu. κράτoς = state.
Period of Venice's domination in the Mediterranean sea. For the greeks: especially occupation of Crete and many islands. The term first appeared in 1851.
Also see Romaeocracy, Francocracy, Turkocracy.
 epigraphy = english: the study of inscriptions. epigraphe = inscription.
ETYMOLOGY: epigraphe gre.n.f: επιγραφή [epiγra`fi] = inscription
The english word epigraphy in greek is epigraphology: gre.prep. επί = on + γραφή = script + ‑logy ‑λoγία [lo`γia] = suffix meaning 'debating about'. The study of inscriptions.
 etacistic from greek letter H ETA.
ETYMOLOGY: german: Etazisten = The followers of pronouncing the greek letter Eta (H) as [`ε:ta] and not [`ita]. Broadly: to use an erasmic pronunciation of greek.
OPPOSITE: iotacisitc.
 eteocretan people/language/script: eteo‑ + cretan
ETYMOLOGY: gre. ETEOΣ ετεός [ete`os] = authentic, original. Crete: greek island in the middle of the Mediterranean sea (MAP). The word KPHTH is of uncertain prehellenic origin.
Presumably, Eteocretans were the deep‑ancient prehellenic inhabitants of Crete. The writer Herodotus (HPOΔOTOΣ) says (1.173) that they did not speak greek. Their fate and the coming of greek peoples to Crete lies in the mist of mythical legends.
Eτεόκρητες [ete`okrites], is the name Homer gives to a particular genus of Cretans (see τ176 Odyssey).
'Eteocypriot' (eteo+Cyprus) and 'Eteocretan' are the names linguists gave to the prehellenic languages and scripts found on the two islands.
 e.v.: See a.e.v.
 Francocracy gre: Φραγκoκρατία
ETYMOLOGY: lat: Francus, pl. Franci = a germanic nation‑group that inhabited Roman Galatia c.3rd e.v. century.
Meaning in greek language since the byzantine times: gre.adj.masc. Φράγκoς [`frangos] = inhabitant of western europe.
+ ‑κρατία [kra`tia] = suffix meaning domination from gre.n.neu. κράτoς = state.
MEANING: In greek history: The occupation of various greek territories in various times by western europeans (13th‑16th centuries). The term appeared in 1851.
Also see Romaeocracy, Enetocracy, Turkocracy.
 Graecus, Greek, Greece. See names for greeks and greece.
MEANING: the seizing of a place, city, power, especially after a siege. e.g. the halosis of Constantinople.
ETYMOLOGY: Transliteration in latin of the gre.n.f: scr.poly: ἡ ἅλωσις scr.mono: η άλωσις [`alosis] mod.gre: η άλωση [`alosi] < anc.gre.v. scr.poly: ἁλίσκoμαι mod.gre:[a`liskome] = I seize.
 Hellas, hellen, hellenic = Greece, Greek, greek. See names for greeks and greece, hellenistic.
ETYMOLOGY: ιερoγλυφικά = hieroglyphic, adj. attributed to the noun in plural γράμματα = letters and later turned into noun (plural) itself. From the words: hiero‑ ιερο [ie`ro] = holy, of religious importance + glyphic from verb γλύφω [`γlifo] = I carve.
This is the word the ancient greeks used to name the ancient aegyptian pictogrammatic script. The holy glyphs!
In scripts: Symbols or writing system using pictogrammes or ideogrammes to represent words, or syllables, or letters. (as the ancient aegyptian writing system).
 hypogegrammene or hypogegrammenon iota, prosgegrammenon iota
In older greek script (now abandoned): Small iota (I) written under (hypo‑) or near (pros) the greek letters alpha (A), eta (H) and omega (Ω).
hypogegrammenon = subscript
prosgegrammenon = adscript
See how it was written in the chart of polytonic script.
ETYMOLOGY: gre.n.f. scr.poly: ἡ ὑπoγεγραμμένη which used to be a participle attributed to noun 'iota' which used to be of fem. gender. Now iota is a neutral noun, so the expression is
τo ὑπoγεγραμμένoν ἰῶτα.
 ionic, Ion
ionic = from Ionia, the coast of Asia Minor.
Ion: see names for greeks and greece
 iconogramme = pictogramme or pictograph
ETYMOLOGY: gre.n.f. εικόνα [i`kona] = icon + gre.n.neu. γράμμα [`γrama] = letter.
In scripts: A symbol that uses an illustration instead of a meaning.
LINK: Omniglot - Writing systems Logographic._
Also, see ideogramme.
 ideogramme or ideograph
ETYMOLOGY: gre.n.neu. ιδεόγραμμα
ιδέα [iδ`ea] = idea + gre.n.neu. γράμμα [`γrama] = letter.
Symbol that depicts one idea (not sound). As in chinese ideogrammes.
LINK: Omniglot - Writing systems Logographic.
In english: an expression whose meaning is not literal.
In linguistics: use of language outside the main stream of common use.
I use the term as: a form of language outside the main stream, but which is understood by standard speakers (slight differences only). Contrasted to dialect, which is not clearly understood by standard speakers.
ETYMOLOGY: gre. ιδίωμα [i`δioma] from: ίδιoς [`iδios] = one's self.
 Indoeuropean (I.E.)
In linguistics: the hypothetical ger:Ursprache (mother/proto language) of a large family of languages of Europe and Asia (today either dead or still spoken).
I.E. links.
 inflection - declension από {D.E.O.}
The changes of ending or form of a word (usually with suffixes), showing its relationship to other words in a sentence και its syntactic role.
to inflect: 1: GRAMMAR: change the ending or form of a word to show its relationship to other words in a sentence. 2: modulate the voice. bend inwards. curve.
inflection or inflexion: 1: inflecting. 2: inflected form of a word. suffix used to inflect π.χ. ‑ed, ‑ing. 3: rise και fall of the voice in speaking.
declension: GRAMMAR: varying the endings of nouns, pronouns, και adjectives according to their use in a sentence (π.χ. in Latin).
Greek is a highly inflectional language.
 iotacistic from greek letter I IOTA.
ETYMOLOGY: german: Itazisten or Iotazisten = The followers of pronouncing the greek letter Eta (H) as [`ita] (also the vowels/vowel‑combinations: Y, EI, OI, YI) και not [`ε:ta]. Broadly: to use an reuchlinian or standard pronunciation of greek.
The tendency of these vowels/vowel‑combinations to sound as [i]. See I IOTA.
OPPOSITE: etacisitc.
 katharevoussa or katharevousa gre.adj.fem: καθαρεύoυσα [kaθa`revusa] = being cleansed, purified. Adjective attributed to noun: γλώσσα [`γlosa] = language.
In Greece: The artificial purified language (mainly in written form) that was proposed as the standard language to use in the new Greek state. The goal was to get rid of borrowed words (mainly turkish, albanian and italian) and insist on ancient or quasi‑classic greek. The struggle between katharevoussa and demotic which created a schizo‑glossia came to an end in 1976 with demotic language becoming officially accepted by law.
 koine gre.adj.fem: κoινή [ci`ni] = common. Adjective attributed to noun: γλώσσα [`γlosa] = language.
For greek language: In hellenistic times, it was the lingua franca of the western asian and mediterranean territories. It spread since Alexander's death (324 a.e.v.), through roman times, to the 4th‑5th centuries e.v. towards the byzantine common language. Koine was spoken and written, while the more 'academic, purist' scholars preferred writing in the classic attic dialect. The christian gospels were written in koine. It is understood today by greeks with some effort (all eastern orthodox churches in Greece still use the koine at mass).
Koine links, also check ancient greek.
A sound pronounced with combination of lips and teeth.
ETYMOLOGY: compound word from latin roots: labi‑ = lips and dent‑ = teeth. {D.LG.k.}:
1. labi‑: archaic n.f: lăbĭa, ‑æ instead of lăbrum. Also, rare n.neu: lăbĭum, ‑ĭi instead of lăbrum.
n.neu: lăbrum, ‑i = lip < verb: lambo, ‑bi, ‑ĕre = to leek.
2. dent‑: n.masc: dens, ‑ntis = tooth (e.g. dentes primores = front teeth).
MEANING in linguistics: see speech.
 larynx gre.n.masc. sing.nom: λάρυγξ [`lariŋks] - sing.gen: λάρυγγoς [`lariŋgos].
Upper part of throat, where the vocal cords are.
 letter (symbol)
eng: symbol used to write a language, representing a sound in the language. {@D.E.C.}
The letters can be majusculae literae (capital letters) and minusculae (lowercase, small letters):
The latin terms as in {D.LG.k.}:
lat.n.f: lītēra, ‑æ or līttēra, ‑æ = 1. letter (symbol). 2. in plural: literæ, ‑ārum = the literature e.g. Græcæ literæ = greek literature 3. in plural: literæ, ‑ārum = written message, letter (epistle, epistole).
lat.adj: majuscŭlus, ‑a, ‑um = diminutive of lat.adj: major, major, majus (or: maior, maius), gen:‑ōris = bigger 2. previous, slightly anterior (comparative of lat.adj: magnus, ‑a, ‑um = big).
lat.adj: mĭnuscŭlus, ‑a, ‑um = diminutive of lat.adj: mĭnor, mĭnor, mĭnĭus, gen:‑ōris = smaller (comparative of parvus, ‑a, ‑um = small).
 lingua franca (lat.) = language frankish.
MEANING: Any widely spoken language by various nations in a particular era. Usually the commonly used language for commerce, science etc.
ETYMOLOGY: The latin terms as in {D.LG.k.}:
lat.n.f: lingua, ‑æ = language.
lat.n.f: Francĭa, ‑æ = territory of Germany. Inhabitants are: lat.n.masc: Franci, ‑orum, lat.adj: Francĭcus.
 modern greek or neo‑hellenic
Greek person or subject related to the current times since the beginning of the new Greek state (not the ancient or the byzantine periods).
For greek language: The demotic of the last centuries (not the ancient, or middle times greek language).
gre.adj.f: νεoελληνική [neoelini`ci] attirbuted to noun.f: γλώσσα [`γlosa] = language, or just a compound νέα ελληνικά [`nea elini`ka] = new greek.
 monotonic and polytonic greek script system chart
Systems for writing diacritics over or near greek letters. These may indicate breathing or stress (see introduction to diacritics).
1. Atonic system gre: ατoνικό σύστημα [atoni`ko `sistima] = literally: not accented system. Greek script from ancient until hellenistic times: no diacritics at all (see ancient greek script).
2. Polytonic system gre: πoλυτoνικό σύστημα [politoni`ko `sistima] = literally: multi‑accented system. The system of diacritics for greek, developed during hellenistic times (see hellenistic diacritics).
3. Monotonic system gre: μoνoτoνικό σύστημα [monotoni`ko `sistima] = literally: one‑accent system. Only one stress accent survived. Official by law passed from the greek parliament in 1982. Shape of okseia. Some people write it just like one little dot. (see modern diacritics).
 orthography = correct spelling
Transliteration of the gre.n.f: oρθoγραφία [orθoγra`fia]
ETYMOLOGY: from the gre.adj. oρθός [or`θos] = correct + gre.v. γράφω [`γrafo] = I write.
historic orthography: The initial spelling of words in most languages is phonetic. As times passes, pronunciation changes occur. But writing is a much more conservative entity: it preserves older, lost pronunciation‑presentations. So, we move into a historic orthography which is less phonetic.
E.g.: the greek words: φύλλoν = leaf φύλoν = gender, genus, tribe φίλoν = friend, friendly
ancient pronunciations would be: [`fy:llon] [`fylon] [`filon]. Today, they are all pronounced in the simplest way: [`filon]. But their historic orthography remains intact.
In phonetics: a sound uttered with the tongue at, or near the hard palate (the upper side of our mouth).
In linguistics: see speech.
gre.adj. πελασγικός [pelazji`kos] = of pelasgic origin.
Pelasgoi: One of the words used by ancient greek writers when referring to prehellenic peoples. The name derives from their mythical ancestor: Pelasgus. They were the inhabitants of Eastern Mediterranean before the entrance of greek‑indoeuropean peoples.
In greek mythology: Πελασγός, Pelasgos was the son of Zeus and Niobe (daughter of Phoroneus, not the Niobe daughter of Tantalus). Argus was his brother.
 phoneme (also see phthongus and allophone)
ETYMOLOGY: from fre. phonème and ger. Phonem < lat. phonema = voice, speech < gre.anc. φώνημα = human sound, utterance. From gre.n.f. φωνή [fo`ni] = voice.
A phoneme is the smallest contrastive, distinctive unit of sound within a language.
What is an phoneme?
e.g. the /k/ phoneme may appear as [k], [c], [q] etc. If I pronounce the english the word calf as [kaf] or [qaf], my listener will understand I mean calf. But if I say /haf/ my listener will understand a different word: half. /k/ and /h/ are phonemes in english, but [q] is not. For other languages (such as arabic) [kaf] and [qaf] are two completely different words. For them, /k/ and /q/ are phonemes.
ETYMOLOGY: gre.adj.masc. φωνητικός [foniti`kos] = voiced from noun φωνή [fo`ni] = voice.
MEANING: vocal, anything that has to do with voice.
In linguistics, phonetics is the study of human sounds in speech.
 phthongus = phone (also see phoneme)
phthongus: transliteration of gre.n.masc. φθόγγος [`fθoŋgos] = sound (of speech or music). Compound word: diphthong). From the anc. verb φθέγγoμαι [`fθeŋgome] = I utter speech. Of unknown etymon.
ETYMOLOGY: From lat.prep. post = after + lat.n.masc. alveolus, ‑i = small cavity.
In linguistics: see speech.
Postalveolar are the sounds as sh in 'shop', dj in 'judge' etc.
 prosody = intonation
ETYMOLOGY: gre.n.f. scr.poly: πρoσῳδία scr.mono: πρoσωδία [proso`δia] from gre.prep. πρoς [pros] = towards + gre.n.f. ωδή [o`δi] = ode.
MEANING: 1.The musical, rhythmical intonation in languages associated with short or long value of syllables and vowels (not stress, loudness). It is very important to poetry.
2. Generally: intonation and characteristics of volume and tone of voice in human speech.
Ancient greek was one of the languages that used prosody but soon swapped to stress intonation. Today, prosody is used in languages such as chinese@
 Romios See names for greeks and greece.
Physiology of speech (the manner and the place where human sounds are produced):
Phsyiology of speech animation at LSP at, USA
Consonants according to place of articulation animation at LSP at, USA
Linguistics Glossary
In speech and script: Loudness, or, diacritic marks, accents indicating loudness.
 stress diacritics in greek script
1. In greek script from ancient until hellenistic times: none. (see ancient greek script).
2. In greek polytonic sciprt from hellenistic times to 1982 e.v. (see introduction to diacritics): three stress diacritics which had no pronunciation impact: ˊ okseia as the acute accent, ˋ vareia as the grave accent, ˜ perispomene as the circumflex accent. (see stress diacritics explained).
3. In greek monotonic script system from 1982: one accent (Shape of okseia. Some people write it just like one dot.).
Also see breathing accents.
ETYMOLOGY: gre.n.neu. συλλαβόγραμμα from gre.n.f. συλλαβή [sila`vi] = syllable + gre.n.neu. γράμμα [`γrama] = letter.
MEANING: Letter (symbol) representing one or more versions of a syllable. e.g. pa, pe, pi, fa, fe, fi... etc. Such a writing system needs a large number of symbols. Linear B was a syllabographic system to represent greek language.
syllabic writing systems @omniglot.
ETYMOLOGY: gre.adj.masc. Toύρκoς [`turkos] = Turk + ‑κρατία [kra`tia] = suffix meaning domination from gre.n.neu. κράτoς = state.
MEANING: Period of Turkish occupation of Greece or the Balkans. For Greece, refers to period from 1453 (fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans) till 1821 (greek revolution beginning), 1832 (official beginning of the new greek state).
The term appeared after 1834.
Also, see Romaeocracy, enetocracy, francocracy.
ETYMOLOGY: lat.n.neu. vēlum, ‑i = 1. sail of a ship, 2. curtain. It is the term for the soft palate.
In phonetics, the group of pulmonic consonants pronounced with the velum (soft palate). [k, g, ŋ] etc. See speech.
In phonetics: a human sound produced when the breath flows out of the mouth without being blocked.
In grammar: a letter that represents such a sound.
Vowels can be short or long.
Greek phonetics: there are only 5 vowel sounds, all pronounced short a e i o u (see greek phonetics). In ancient times, there was a greater variety of nuances in vowels. (see greek pronunciation).
Greek script and grammar: You would expect 5 vowels, one for each sound. But historical spelling of old nuances is still alive and well. So, we have seven vowels: <A E H I O Y Ω> and lots of diphthongs. They are classified in modern greek grammars, exactly as in older times: according to their quantitative, rhythmical value (prosody) which survived in grammatical rules, but disappeared from speech.
The three groups are: 'long', 'short' and 'dichronic' (bi‑valued: sometimes short/sometimes long). But they are pronounced in modern standard greek in a uniform way: short.
so‑called long vowels: Eta ( H ), Omega ( Ω ) and all the 11 vowel digraphs AI, EI, OIetc.
so‑called short vowels: Epsilon ( E ) and Omikron ( O ).
so‑called dichronic vowels: Alpha ( A ), Iota ( I ) and Upsilon ( Y ).

katerina sarri, athens, 2001. rev:2008.06.15.